What is CSS? And How Does It Relate to HMTL?

Topics to be covered

  • The difference between HTML and CSS
  • Getting acquainted with HTML elements, tags, and attributes
  • Setting up the structure of your first HTML and CSS web page
  • Getting acquainted with CSS selectors, properties, and values
  • Working with CSS selectors
  • Referencing CSS in your HTML

What Are HTML & CSS?

HTML, HyperText Markup Language, gives content structure and meaning by defining that content as, for example, headings, paragraphs, or images. CSS, or Cascading Style Sheets, is a presentation language created to style the appearance of content—using, for example, fonts or colors.

The two languages—HTML and CSS—are independent of one another and should remain that way. CSS should not be written inside of an HTML document and vice versa. As a rule, HTML will always represent content, and CSS will always represent the appearance of that content.

With this understanding of the difference between HTML and CSS, let’s dive into HTML in more detail.

Understanding Common HTML Terms

While getting started with HTML, you will likely encounter new—and often strange—terms. Over time you will become more and more familiar with all of them, but the three common HTML terms you should begin with are elementstags, and attributes.

Elements

Elements are designators that define the structure and content of objects within a page. Some of the more frequently used elements include multiple levels of headings (identified as <h1> through <h6> elements) and paragraphs (identified as the <p> element); the list goes on to include the <a><div><span><strong>, and <em> elements, and many more.

Elements are identified by the use of less-than and greater-than angle brackets, < >, surrounding the element name. Thus, an element will look like the following:

<a>

Tags

The use of less-than and greater-than angle brackets surrounding an element creates what is known as a tag. Tags most commonly occur in pairs of opening and closing tags.

An opening tag marks the beginning of an element. It consists of a less-than sign followed by an element’s name, and then ends with a greater-than sign; for example, <div>.

closing tag marks the end of an element. It consists of a less-than sign followed by a forward slash and the element’s name, and then ends with a greater-than sign; for example, </div>.

The content that falls between the opening and closing tags is the content of that element. An anchor link (A web link that allows users to jump to a specific point on a website page.), for example, will have an opening tag of <a> and a closing tag of </a>. What falls between these two tags will be the content of the anchor link.

So, anchor tags will look a bit like this:            

<a>…</a>

Attributes

Attributes are properties used to provide additional information about an element. The most common attributes include the id attribute, which identifies an element; the class attribute, which classifies an element; the src attribute, which specifies a source for embeddable content; and the href attribute, which provides a hyperlink reference to a linked resource.

Attributes are defined within the opening tag, after an element’s name. Generally attributes include a name and a value. The format for these attributes consists of the attribute name followed by an equals sign and then a quoted attribute value. For example, an <a> element including an href attribute would look like the following:

<a href=”http://shayhowe.com/”>Shay Howe</a>

Common HTML Terms Demo

The preceding code will display the text “Shay Howe” on the web page and will take users to http://shayhowe.com/ upon clicking the “Shay Howe” text. The anchor element is declared with the opening <a> and closing </a> tags surrounding the text, and the hyperlink reference attribute and value are declared with href="http://shayhowe.com" in the opening tag.

Fig 1

HTML syntax outline including an element, attribute, and tag

Now that you know what HTML elements, tags, and attributes are, let’s take a look at putting together our first web page. If anything looks new here, no worries—we’ll decipher it as we go.

Setting Up the HTML Document Structure

HTML documents are plain text documents saved with an .html file extension rather than a .txt file extension.

To begin writing HTML, you first need a plain text editor that you are comfortable with like the one mentioned on our previous discussion. This does not include Microsoft Word or Pages, as those are rich text editors

All HTML documents have a required structure that includes the following declaration and elements: <!DOCTYPE html><html><head>, and <body>.

The document type declaration, or <!DOCTYPE html>, informs web browsers which version of HTML is being used and is placed at the very beginning of the HTML document. Because we’ll be using the latest version of HTML, our document type declaration is simply <!DOCTYPE html>. Following the document type declaration, the <html> element signifies the beginning of the document.

Inside the <html> element, the <head> element identifies the top of the document, including any metadata (accompanying information about the page). The content inside the <head> element is not displayed on the web page itself. Instead, it may include the document title (which is displayed on the title bar in the browser window), links to any external files, or any other beneficial metadata.

Example of Title on a web browser

All of the visible content within the web page will fall within the <body> element. A breakdown of a typical HTML document structure looks like this:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang=”en”>
<head>    
<meta charset=”utf-8″> 
<title>Hello World</title>  
</head>
 <body>    
<h1>Hello World</h1>    
<p>This is a web page.</p>  
</body>
</html>

HTML Document Structure Demo

The preceding code shows the document beginning with the document type declaration, <!DOCTYPE html>, followed directly by the <html> element. Inside the <html> element come the <head> and <body> elements. The <head> element includes the character encoding of the page via the <meta charset="utf-8"> tag and the title of the document via the <title> element. The <body> element includes a heading via the <h1> element and a paragraph via the <p> element. Because both the heading and paragraph are nested within the <body> element, they are visible on the web page.

When an element is placed inside of another element, also known as nested, it is a good idea to indent that element to keep the document structure well organized and legible. In the previous code, both the <head> and <body> elements were nested—and indented—inside the <html> element. The pattern of indenting for elements continues as new elements are added inside the <head> and <body> elements.

Self-Closing Elements

In the previous example, the <meta> element had only one tag and didn’t include a closing tag. Fear not, this was intentional. Not all elements consist of opening and closing tags. Some elements simply receive their content or behaviour from attributes within a single tag. The <meta> element is one of these elements. The content of the previous <meta> element is assigned with the use of the charset attribute and value. Other common selfclosing elements include

  • <br>
  • <embed>
  • <hr>
  • <img>
  • <input>
  • <link>
  • <meta>
  • <param>
  • <source>
  • <wbr>

The structure outlined here, making use of the <!DOCTYPE html> document type and <html><head>, and <body> elements, is quite common. We’ll want to keep this document structure handy, as we’ll be using it often as we create new HTML documents.

In Practice

Refer back to our previous Discussion to start a new HTML Document

  1. Let’s open our text editor, create a new file named index.html, and save it to a location we won’t forget.
  2. Within the index.html file, let’s add the document structure, including the <!DOCTYPE html> document type and the <html><head>, and <body> elements.
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang=”en”>
 <head>  
</head>  
<body>
  </body>
</html>
  • Inside the <head> element, let’s add <meta> and <title> elements. The <meta> element should include the proper charset attribute and value, while the <title> element should contain the title of the page—let’s say “Styles Conference.”
<head>
 <meta charset=”utf-8″>
 <title>Styles Conference</title>
</head>
  • Inside the <body> element, let’s add <h1> and <p> elements. The <h1> element should include the heading we wish to include—let’s use “Styles Conference” again—and the <p> element should include a simple paragraph to introduce our conference.
<body>  
<h1>Styles Conference</h1>
 <p>Every year the brightest web designers and front-end developer descend on Chicago to discuss the latest technologies.
Join us this August!</p>
</body>
  1. Now it’s time to see how you’ve done! Find your index.html file Double-clicking this file or dragging it into a web browser will open it for us to review.
Fig 1

first steps into building our Styles Conference website

Let’s switch gears a bit, moving away from HTML, and take a look at CSS.  

Remember, HTML will define the content and structure of our web pages, while CSS will define the visual style and appearance of our web pages.

Understanding Common CSS Terms

In addition to HTML terms, there are a few common CSS terms you will want to familiarize yourself with. These terms include selectorsproperties, and values. As with the HTML terminology, the more you work with CSS, the more these terms will become second nature.

Selectors

As elements are added to a web page, they may be styled using CSS. A selector labels exactly which element or elements within our HTML to target and apply styles (such as color, size, and position) to. Selectors may include a combination of different qualifiers to select unique elements, all depending on how specific we wish to be. For example, we may want to select every paragraph on a page, or we may want to select only one specific paragraph on a page.

Selectors generally target an attribute value, such as an id or class value, or target the type of element, such as <h1> or <p>.

Within CSS, selectors are followed with curly brackets, {}, which encompass the styles to be applied to the selected element. The selector here is targeting all <p> elements.

p { … }

Properties

Once an element is selected, a property determines the styles that will be applied to that element. Property names fall after a selector, within the curly brackets, {}, and immediately preceding a colon, :. There are numerous properties we can use, such as backgroundcolorfont-sizeheight, and width, and new properties are often added. In the following code, we are defining the color and font-size properties to be applied to all <p> elements.

p {  
color: …;  
font-size: …;
}

Values

Values can be identified as the text between the colon, :, and semicolon, ;. Here we are selecting all <p> elements and setting the value of the color property to be orange and the value of the font-size property to be 16 pixels.

p {  
color: orange;
  font-size: 16px;
}

To review, in CSS our rule set begins with the selector, which is immediately followed by curly brackets. Within these curly brackets are declarations consisting of property and value pairs. Each declaration begins with a property, which is followed by a colon, the property value, and finally a semicolon.

It is a common practice to indent property and value pairs within the curly brackets. As with HTML, these indentations help keep our code organized and legible.

CSS syntax outline including a selector, properties, and values

Knowing a few common terms and the general syntax of CSS is a great start, but we have a few more items to learn before jumping in too deep. Specifically, we need to take a closer look at how selectors work within CSS.

Working with Selectors

Selectors, as previously mentioned, indicate which HTML elements are being styled. It is important to fully understand how to use selectors. The first step is to become familiar with the different types of selectors. We’ll start with the most common selectors: typeclass, and ID selectors.

Type Selectors

Type selectors target elements by their element type. For example, should we wish to target all division elements, <div>, we would use a type selector of div. The following code shows a type selector for division elements as well as the corresponding HTML it selects.

CSS
div { … }
HTML
<div>…</div>       
<div>…</div>

Class Selectors

Class selectors allow us to select an element based on the element’s class attribute value. Class selectors are a little more specific than type selectors, as they select a particular group of elements rather than all elements of one type.

Class selectors allow us to apply the same styles to different elements at once by using the same class attribute value across multiple elements.

Within CSS, classes are denoted by a leading period, ., followed by the class attribute value. Here the class selector will select any element containing the class attribute value of awesome, including both division and paragraph elements.

CSS

.awesome { … }

HTML

<div class=”awesome”>…</div>
<p class=”awesome”>…</p>

ID Selectors

ID selectors are even more specific than class selectors, as they target only one unique element at a time. Just as class selectors use an element’s class attribute value as the selector, ID selectors use an element’s id attribute value as a selector.

Regardless of which type of element they appear on, id attribute values can only be used once per page. If used they should be reserved for significant elements.

Within CSS, ID selectors are denoted by a leading hash sign, #, followed by the id attribute value. Here the ID selector will only select the element containing the id attribute value of shayhowe.

CSS

#shayhowe { … }

HTML

<div id=”shayhowe”>…</div>

Additional Selectors

Selectors are extremely powerful, and the selectors defined here are the most common selectors we’ll come across. These selectors are also only the beginning. Many more advanced selectors exist and are readily available.

When you feel comfortable with these selectors, don’t be afraid to look into some of the more advanced selectors from W3schools: https://www.w3schools.com/ or follow this direct link: https://www.w3schools.com/css/default.asp

All right, everything is starting to come together. We add elements to a page inside our HTML, and we can then select those elements and apply styles to them using CSS. Now let’s connect the dots between our HTML and CSS, and get these two languages working together.

Referencing CSS

In order to get our CSS talking to our HTML, we need to reference our CSS file within our HTML. The best practice for referencing our CSS is to include all of our styles in a single external style sheet, which is referenced from within the <head> element of our HTML document. Using a single external style sheet allows us to use the same styles across an entire website and quickly make changes sitewide.

Other Options for Adding CSS

Other options for referencing CSS include using internal and inline styles. You may come across these options in the wild, but they are generally frowned upon, as they make updating websites cumbersome and unwieldy.

To create our external CSS style sheet, we’ll want to use our text editor of choice again to create a new plain text file with a .css file extension. Our CSS file should be saved within the same folder, or a subfolder, where our HTML file is located.

Within the <head> element of the HTML document, the <link> element is used to define the relationship between the HTML file and the CSS file. Because we are linking to CSS, we use the rel attribute with a value of stylesheet to specify their relationship. Furthermore, the href (or hyperlink reference) attribute is used to identify the location, or path, of the CSS file.

Consider the following example of an HTML document <head> element that references a single external style sheet.

<head>  
<link rel=”stylesheet” href=”main.css”>
</head>

In order for the CSS to render correctly, the path of the href attribute value must directly correlate to where our CSS file is saved. In the example above, the main.css file is stored within the same location as the HTML file, also known as the root directory.

If our CSS file is within a subdirectory or subfolder, the href attribute value needs to correlate to this path accordingly.

For example, if our main.css file were stored within a subdirectory named stylesheets, the href attribute value would be stylesheets/main.css, using a forward slash to indicate moving into a subdirectory.

At this point our pages are starting to come to life, slowly but surely. We haven’t explored into CSS too much, but you may have noticed that some elements have default styles we haven’t declared within our CSS. That is the browser imposing its own preferred CSS styles for those elements.

We have discussed the basics of CSS and how they can be applied to HTML. We are diving deep into the syntax and elements, and also creating our static website in next discussion.

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